What the SECURE Act Means to Your Retirement Plan

Congress passed meaningful tax legislation as it recessed for the holidays in 2019.

The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019 made many changes to how you save money for your retirement, how you use your money in retirement, and how you can better use your Section 529 plans.

Whether you are age 35 or age 75, these changes affect you. Here are eight of the changes.

Small-Employer Automatic Contribution Tax Credit

If your business has a 401(k) plan or a SIMPLE (Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees) plan that covers 100 or fewer employees, and it implements an automatic contribution arrangement for employees, either you or it qualifies for a $500 tax credit each year for three years, beginning with the first year of such automatic contribution.

This change is effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2019.

Tax tip. This credit can apply to both newly created and existing retirement plans.

IRA Contributions for Graduate and Postdoctoral Students

Before the SECURE Act,
certain taxable stipends and non-tuition fellowship payments received by
graduate and postdoctoral students were included in taxable income but not
treated as compensation for IRA purposes. Thus, they could not be used as a
basis for IRA contributions.

The SECURE Act removed
the “compensation” obstacle. The new law states: “The term ‘compensation’ shall
include any amount which is included in the individual’s gross income and paid
to the individual to aid the individual in the pursuit of graduate or
postdoctoral study.”

The change enables these students to begin saving for retirement and accumulating tax-favored retirement savings if they have any funds available (remember, these are students).

This change applies
to tax years beginning after December 31, 2019.

Tax tip. If your child pays no income tax or pays tax at the 10 percent or 12 percent rate, consider contributing to a Roth IRA instead of a traditional IRA.

No Age Limit on Traditional IRA Contributions

Prior law stopped
you from contributing funds to a traditional IRA if you were age 70½ or older.

Now you can make a
traditional IRA contribution at any age, just as you could and still can with a
Roth IRA.

This change applies
to contributions made for tax years beginning after December 31, 2019.

No 10 Percent Penalty for Birth/Adoption Withdrawals

You pay no 10
percent early withdrawal penalty on IRA or qualified retirement plan
distributions if the distribution is a “qualified birth or adoption
distribution.” The maximum penalty-free distribution is $5,000 per individual
per birth or adoption. For this purpose, a qualified plan does not include a defined
benefit plan.

This change applies to
distributions made after December 31, 2019.

Tax tip. A birth or adoption in 2019 can signal the start of the one year, allowing qualified birth and adoption distributions as soon as January 1, 2020.

RMDs Start at Age 72

Before the SECURE Act,
you generally had to start taking required minimum distributions (RMDs) from
your traditional IRA or qualified retirement plan in the tax year you turned age

Now you can wait
until the tax year you turn age 72.

This change applies
to RMDs after December 31, 2019, if you turn age 70½ after December 31, 2019.

Open a Retirement Plan Later

Under the SECURE Act,
if you adopt a stock bonus, pension, profit-sharing, or annuity plan after the
close of a tax year but before your tax return due date plus extensions, you
can elect to treat the plan as if you adopted it on the last day of the tax

Under prior law, you
had to establish the plan before the end of the tax year to make contributions for
that tax year.

This change applies
to plans adopted for tax years beginning after December 31, 2019.

How it works. You can establish and fund, for example, an
individual 401(k) for a Schedule C business as late as October 15, 2020, and have
the 401(k) in place for 2020.

Expanded Tax-Free Section 529 Plan Distributions

Distributions from
your child’s Section 529 college savings plan are non-taxable if the amounts
distributed are

  • investments into the plan (your basis), or
  • used for qualified higher education expenses.

Qualified higher-education
expenses now include

  • fees, books, supplies, and equipment required for the designated beneficiary’s participation in an apprenticeship program registered and certified with the Secretary of Labor under Section 1 of the National Apprenticeship Act, and
  • the principal or interest payments on any qualified education loan of the designated beneficiary or his or her siblings.

If you rely on the
student loan provision to make tax-free Section 529 plan distributions,

  • there is a $10,000 maximum per individual loan holder, and
  • the loan holder reduces his or her student loan interest deduction by the distributions, but not below $0.

This change applies
to distributions made after December 31, 2018 (not a typo—see below).

Tax tip. Did you notice 2018 above? Good news. You can use the new qualified expense categories to identify tax-free Section 529 distributions that are retroactive to 2019.

RMDs on Inherited Accounts

Under the old rules
for inherited retirement accounts, you could “stretch” out the account and take
RMDs each year to deplete the account over many years.

Now, if you inherit a
defined contribution plan or an IRA, you must fully distribute the balances of
these plans by the end of the 10th calendar year following the year of death. There
is no longer a requirement to take out a certain amount each year.

The current stretch rules,
and not the new 10-year period, continue to apply to a designated beneficiary
who is

  • a surviving spouse,
  • a child who has not reached the age of majority,
  • disabled as defined in Code Section 72(m)(7),
  • a chronically ill individual as defined in Code Section 7702B(e)(2)
    with modification, or
  • not more than 10 years younger than the deceased.

This change applies to distributions for plan owners who die after December 31, 2019.

If you have questions about the Secure Act and its impact on your tax and retirement plans, contact me.

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